Lu Rong (Deer Velvet or Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum)

What Is Lu Rong

Lu Rong commonly known as Deer Velvet or Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum is the non-ossified tender horn of stag of Cervus nippon or Cervus elaphus, which is a mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. It is a precious animal medicine and dietary supplement, which first appeared in <Shennong Ben Cao Jing> in the late Western Han Dynasty (about 100 BC).

Cervus nippon commonly known as Sika deer, Spotted deer, or the Japanese deer is a small to medium-sized deer. They are not very gregarious. Among them, the stags tend to live alone. They are active in the early morning or dusk. As the seasons change, they also change living areas.

They are mainly distributed in eastern Russia, China, and Japan. At present, some countries have introduced them. They mainly inhabit the edges of forests and mountain grasslands. In the United Kingdom, they have a wide range of habitats, including broad-leaved forests, marshes, salt marshes, and islands.

Cervus elaphus is commonly known as Red deer and is one of the largest deer species. They like to live in groups and inhabit alpine forests and grasslands. In summer, they are usually active at night and early in the morning, and in winter, they are usually active in the daytime.

Cervus nippon

They are good at running and swimming. They feed on grass, leaves, twigs, bark, or fruit peel. They are widely distributed in southern and central Europe, North America, northern Africa, and Asia. They are cultivated artificially in some countries.

In summer and autumn when the new horns of stags are not yet ossified, people saw off the horns, remove the hairs on their surfaces, cut them into slices, dry them in the shade, and make them into Chinese herbal medicines.

Lu Rong contains keratin, collagen, estrogen receptor, cytoskeleton protein, glutamic acid, glycine, arginine, proline, tyrosine, alanine, histidine, chondroitin sulfate, acidic mucopolysaccharide, neutral sugar, galactosamine, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, guanine, uracil, adenine, cytidine, creatinine, hypoxanthine, polypeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids, and some inorganic elements.

Generally, thick Lu Rong with intact fur and no bone edge is preferred.

According to <Compendium of Materia Medica>, the medicinal property of Lu Rong is relatively warm, with a sweet and salty taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the kidney and liver meridians.

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is often used to replenish kidney yang and essence and blood, strengthen muscles and bones, regulate Chong and Ren channels, promote pus discharge, and treat oligospermia, asthenospermia, azoospermia, non-liquefaction of semen, primary dysmenorrhea, threatened abortion, insomnia, forgetfulness, neurasthenia, lassitude in loin and legs, involuntary emission, spermatorrhea, erectile dysfunction, frequent urination, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, loss of appetite, uterine bleeding, coronary angina pectoris, diabetic nephropathy, fractures, osteoporosis, cervical erosion, and menopausal syndrome.

There are about 100 kinds of Chinese medicine prescriptions containing it, such as Bu Shen Yi Nao Wan, Shen Rong Pian, and An Shen Bu Nao Pian.


  • Anti-inflammation, inhibiting xylene-induced ear swelling in mice and carrageenan-induced foot swelling in mice.
  • Anti-oxidation, enhancing superoxide dismutase activity, reducing malondialdehyde content, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
  • Promoting the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, increasing spleen index and thymus index, and improving immunity.
  • Dilating coronary arteries, increasing myocardial enzyme activity, preventing ventricular fibrillation, arrhythmia, and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  • Reducing liver damage induced by alcohol or CCL4 and protecting the liver.
  • Inhibiting the formation of new osteoclasts, inducing osteoclast apoptosis, promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts and the synthesis of type IV collagen, and promoting fracture healing.
  • Improving bone density, bone cortical thickness, and bone trabecular area, and preventing osteoporosis caused by ovarian removal in rats.
  • Reducing the serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol content of hyperlipidemia mice, and increasing the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content.
  • Inhibiting the growth of mouse S180 sarcoma cells and H22 tumor-bearing cells.
  • Replenishing kidney yang and essence and blood, and treating aversion to cold, cold limbs, impotence, premature ejaculation, sterility due to uterine cold, frequent urination, aching pain in waist and knees, headache, tinnitus, and fatigue caused by deficiency of kidney yang or insufficiency of liver and kidney.
  • Strengthening muscles and bones, treating weakness of waist and knees, five kinds of retardations in infants.
  • Regulating Chong and Ren channels, treating uterine bleeding and excessive leucorrhea caused by deficiency and cold in the Chong and Ren meridians.
  • Promoting pus discharge, treating long-unclosed ulcers, and deep abscesses.
  • Its polypeptide can improve the learning and memory ability of mice under microwave irradiation, promote the growth and development of nerve cells, and repair nerve cell damage.
  • Its polypeptide can significantly prolong the survival time of mice under normal pressure and hypoxia conditions and the time of mice swimming with weight, and reduce the increase of lactic acid in the serum of mice after swimming. It has anti-hypoxia and anti-fatigue effects.
  • Studies have found that it has the effect of promoting sexual function. Its extract can increase the weight of the testis, prostate, and seminal vesicles of male rats, and the weight of the uterus and ovaries of female rats.


  • It can be used in combination with Ren Shen (Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng), Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), and Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) to treat aversion to cold, cold limbs, impotence, premature ejaculation, sterility due to uterine cold, frequent urination, aching pain in waist and knees, headache, tinnitus, and fatigue caused by deficiency of kidney yang.
  • It can be used in combination with Wu Jia Pi (Cortex Acanthopanacis), Shu Di Huang (Processed Rehmannia Root), and Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) to treat weakness of waist and knees, five kinds of retardations in infants.
  • It can be used in combination with Gu Sui Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae), Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci), and Zi Ran Tong (Pyrite) to treat poor healing in the later stage of fractures.
  • It can be used in combination with Hai Piao Xiao (Os Sepiae), Long Gu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi), and Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci) to treat uterine bleeding and emaciation.
  • It can be used in combination with Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) and Rou Gui (Cinnamomi Cortex) to treat long-unclosed ulcers and deep abscesses.

Side Effects

At present, there are no reports in the literature that Lu Rong has toxic effects, and there are no reports of serious adverse reactions when it is taken according to the prescribed dose.

Long-term or overdose may cause dizziness, red eyes, dry mouth, dry throat, irritability, short red urine, or dry stool.

Precautions and Warnings

  • The dosage of Lu Rong should be controlled at 1-2g.
  • It can be made into pills, powders, or medicinal liquors.
  • People who are allergic to Lu Rong should not take it.
  • When taking it, the dosage can be increased slowly, but it is not advisable to increase the dosage suddenly.
  • People with hyperactivity of yang due to yin deficiency should not take it.
  • People with heat in xuefen should not take it.
  • People with stomach heat should not take it.
  • People with phlegm heat should not take it.
  • People with febrile diseases should not take it.
  • People with diabetes should not take it.
  • People with chronic diseases such as liver disease, heart disease, kidney disease, or high blood pressure should take it under the guidance of a doctor.
  • Children, pregnant women, and breastfeeding women should not take it.
  • The elderly and infirm should take it under the guidance of a doctor.