Man Jing Zi (Vitex Fruit or Fructus Viticis)

What Is Man Jing Zi

Man Jing Zi is commonly known as Vitex Fruit or Fructus Viticis and is the fruit of Vitex trifolia L. or Vitex trifolia L. var. simplicifolia Cham, which is a deciduous shrub belonging to the family Verbenaceae. It first appeared in <Shennong Ben Cao Jing> in the late Western Han Dynasty (around 100 BCE).

There are about 250 species of Vitex, which are mainly distributed in tropical regions, and only a few are distributed in temperate regions. Among them, only some plants have medicinal value.

Vitex trifolia L is light-loving, heat-resistant, and drought-resistant. They grow well in the sandy wasteland with deep soil. They often grow in the bushes near the river and villages at an altitude of 300-1,600m. They can be found in southern China, India, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Australia. The fruits of this plant can extract aromatic oils.

Vitex trifolia L. var. simplicifolia Cham is a variant of Vitex trifolia L.. They can be planted on loose, well-drained river beaches, sandy land, etc. They are distributed in China, Japan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Australia, and New Zealand.

Vitex trifolia

In autumn, people gather the mature fruits of Vitex trifolia L. or Vitex trifolia L. var. simplicifolia Cham, remove impurities, dry them, use them directly, or stir-fry them to make them into Chinese herbal medicines.

Man Jing Zi contains vitetrifolin A-I, vitextrifolin A-G, vitexilactone, vitrifolin A, vitrdoin B, oleanolic acid, prunellin A, taraxerol, α-amyrin, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, lupeol, betulic acid, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, luteolin, apigenin, vitexin, isoorientin, casticin, quercetin, kaempferol, emodin, chrysophanol, emodin methyl ether, lignans, vanillic acid, ethyl p-hydroxyformate, caffeic acid, β-sitosterol, β-daucosterol, stigmasterol, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, volatile oils, and a small number of trace elements.

Generally, the gray-black or dark-brown, plump Man Jing Zi with strong fragrance is preferred.

According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the medicinal nature of Man Jing Zi is slightly cold, with a pungent and bitter taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the bladder, liver, and stomach meridians.

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is often used to dispel wind and heat, treat cold headache, hypertension headache, rhinitis, periodontitis, acute conjunctivitis, chronic bronchitis, gastritis, acute mastitis, supraorbital neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, tinnitus, deafness, dim vision, senile cataract, rheumatic arthralgia.

There are about 50 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions containing it, such as Huang Lian Shang Qing Wan, Bo Yun Tui Yi Wan, and Xiongju Shangqing granules.


  • Anti-inflammation, inhibiting xylene-induced ear swelling in mice and egg white-induced rat foot swelling.
  • Anti-oxidation, scavenging DPPH free radicals, and NO free radicals.
  • Raising the pain threshold and inhibiting the pain caused by the hot plate experiment in mice.
  • Reducing the body temperature of rats with fever caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
  • Inducing apoptosis of K562 cells and HL-60 cells.
  • Reducing liver damage induced by CCL4 and protecting the liver.
  • Inhibiting the activity of histamine release and blocking the spontaneous contraction of guinea pig trachea induced by histamine.
  • Inhibiting the contraction of the ileum induced by histamine or acetylcholine.
  • Treating dizziness and headache caused by wind-heat, and migraine caused by wind evil attacking the upper.
  • Dispelling wind and heat, treating redness, swelling, and pain of eyes, blurred vision, and delacrimation caused by wind heat attacking the upper.
  • Sending up the lucid yang, treating deafness and tinnitus caused by deficiency of qi in middle-jiao.
  • Dispelling wind and relieving pain, treating rheumatic arthralgia.
  • Its decoction has a certain inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus and Bacillus cereus.
  • Studies have found that its extract can inhibit mouse lens aldose reductase and prevent cataracts and diabetic complications caused by polyhydroxy compounds, such as sciatica, nephropathy, and retinopathy.


Side Effects

  • Modern studies have shown that the toxicity of Man Jing Zi is relatively low.
  • A small number of people taking it may cause allergic reactions such as wheals and itching.

Precautions and Warnings

  • The dosage of Man Jing Zi should be controlled at 5-9g.
  • It can be made into decoctions, lotions, pills, powders, or medicinal liquor.
  • It is recommended to mash it before decoction when making decoction.
  • People who are allergic to vitex should not take it.
  • Patients with a deficiency in the stomach should not take it.
  • Patients with blood deficiency and fire should not take it.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take it.
  • The unprocessed Man Jing Zi is often used to dispel wind and heat, and the stir-fried Man Jing Zi is often used to elevate yang to cure prolapse syndrome., dispel wind and relieve pain.