Zi Su Ye (Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf)

What Is Zi Su Ye

Zi Su Ye commonly known as Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf is the leaf of Perilla frutescens, which is an annual herb belonging to the family Labiatae. It is a relatively practical and common Chinese herbal medicine, which first appeared in <Mingyi Bie Lu> around 420-589 AD.

Perilla frutescens commonly called Deulkkae or Korean perilla is an economical plant. They are widely used in many fields such as food, cosmetics, and health products.

This plant is native to East Asia. Because of its significant economic benefits, it has now been introduced into the United States, Canada, and some European countries.

In summer and autumn, people gather the leaves of Perilla frutescens, remove their impurities, dry them in the sun, and make them into Chinese herbal medicines.

Perilla Leaf

Zi Su Ye contains a lot of volatile oil, and its components include camphene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, copaene, caiyophilene, α-farnesene, perillaldehyde, elemene, perillaalcohol, γ-terpinene, linalool, β-bisabolene, α-bisabolene, farnesene, phytol, nerolidol, ylangene, caryophyllene, elemicin, perillaketone, perillene, menthenone, elscholtzione, trans-citral, benzaldehyde, dibutyl phthalate, andrographolidume, methyl linolenate, asarone, myristicin, paraxylene, and apopinol.

In addition, it also contains luteolin, apigenin, rutin, chrysoeriol, scutellarein-7-methyl ether, scutellarin, isoegomaketone, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, caffeic acid vinyl ester, ferulic acid, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, coumaric tartaric acid, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, amyrin, oleanolic acid, shisonin A-E, prunasin, sambunigrin, β-sitosterol, daucosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, fatty acids, pigments, amino acids, vitamin C, vitamin PP, vitamin E, vitamin D2, vitamin D3, vitamin K1, and some trace elements.

Generally, Zi Su Ye with a green upper surface and purple lower surface and a strong fragrance is preferred.

According to <Compendium of Materia Medica>, the medicinal property of Zi Su Ye is relatively warm, with a pungent taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the lung and spleen meridians.

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is often used to relieve exterior symptoms and dispel cold, promote qi flow to remove stagnation from spleen and stomach, and treat cold, cough, acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, functional dyspepsia, vomiting during pregnancy, postpartum depression, Globus pharyngis, gastric neurosis, chronic cholecystitis, biliary ascariasis, diabetic gastroparesis, infantile autumn diarrhea, hemorrhoids, vulgaris, purulent inflammation and chronic renal failure.

There are about 200 kinds of Chinese medicine prescriptions containing it, such as Huo Xiang Zheng Qi Wan, Xiangsu Zhengwei Wan, and Banxia Houpo Tang.

Benefits

  • Anti-inflammation, inhibiting the expression of mouse colon factor genes and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induced by dextran sodium sulfate and improving intestinal inflammation in mice.
  • Anti-oxidation, scavenging hydroxyl free radicals and DPPH free radicals.
  • Reducing the body temperature of rats with fever caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol, and the body temperature of rabbits with fever caused by expired typhoid and paratyphoid vaccines.
  • Shortening the prothrombin time, reducing the diameter of tiny arteries and tiny blood vessels.
  • Reducing blood sugar and TC and TG content in blood lipids of diabetic mice caused by alloxan, and regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.
  • Inhibiting the platelet aggregation induced by collagen and prothrombin, and delaying the arterial embolism induced by FeCl3.
  • Reducing the acute liver injury induced by CCL4 and protecting the liver.
  • Relieving exterior symptoms and dispelling cold, treating fever, headache, anhidrosis, fullness and oppression in chest and epigastrium, nausea, and vomiting caused by wind-cold and qi stagnation.
  • Regulating lung and reducing phlegm, treating cough, asthma, and excessive phlegm caused by the cold-dryness syndrome.
  • Promoting qi flow to remove stagnation from spleen and stomach, treating abdominal flatulence in chest and epigastrium, nausea and vomiting caused by qi stagnation in middle energizer.
  • Treating chest tightness, vomiting, and fetal irritability caused by the upward flow of fetal qi.
  • Treating Globus pharyngis caused by depression due to seven emotions, or qi stagnation and coagulated phlegm in throat.
  • Relieving abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea caused by eating allergies after eating fish and crab.
  • Inhibiting the growth of lung cancer LTEP-a-2 cells and inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer MGC-803 cells and lung cancer A549 cells.
  • Its water extract cooperates with pentobarbital sodium to extend the sleep time of experimental mice.
  • Its water extract can significantly shorten the resting duration of mice in the forced swimming experiment.
  • It contains rosmarinic acid, which can promote the proliferation of dentate gyrus cells in the hippocampus of the mouse brain and reduce the symptoms of depression in depression model mice.
  • Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella.

Combinations

  • It can be used in combination with Xiang Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), Chen Pi (Tangerine Peel), and Gan Cao (Licorice Root) to treat fever, headache, anhidrosis, fullness and oppression in chest and epigastrium, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite caused by wind-cold and qi stagnation.
  • It can be used in combination with Ban Xia (Pinellia Rhizome), Fu Ling (Poria), Qian Hu (Radix Peucedani), Xing Ren (Semen Armeniacae), and Jie Geng (Radix Platycodi) to treat aversion to cold, anhidrosis, slight headache, cough, thin sputum, nasal congestion, dry throat, white coating, and wiry pulse caused by the cold-dryness syndrome.
  • It can be used in combination with Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis) and Lu Gen (Rhizoma Phragmitis) to treat nausea and vomiting caused by stomach heat.
  • It can be used in combination with Sha Ren (Fructus Amomi) and Chen Pi (Tangerine Peel) to treat chest tightness, vomiting, and fetal irritability caused by the upward flow of fetal qi.
  • It can be used in combination with Sheng Jiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens), Chen Pi (Tangerine Peel), and Guang Huo Xiang (Herba Pogostemonis) to alleviate abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea caused by eating allergies after eating fish and crab.

Side Effects

Modern animal studies show that its volatile oil is slightly toxic.

Individual patients taking it may cause discomforts such as nausea and vomiting.

Precautions and Warnings

  • The dosage of Zi Su Ye should be controlled at 5-10g.
  • It can be made into decoctions, lotions, or mashed for external use.
  • It contains a lot of volatile oil and is not suitable for long decoction.
  • People who are allergic to Zi Su Ye should not take it.
  • People with loose stools due to spleen deficiency should not take it.
  • People with cough due to lung deficiency should not take it.
  • People with qi deficiency should not take it.