Ju Hua (Flos Chrysanthemi)

What Is Ju Hua

Ju Hua commonly known as Flos Chrysanthemi is the flower head of Chrysanthemum morifolium, which is a perennial herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. It is a relatively practical and common Chinese herbal medicine and dietary supplement, which first appeared in <Shennong Ben Cao Jing> in the late Western Han Dynasty (about 100 BC).

There are about 30 species of Chrysanthemums, which are mainly distributed in the subtropical and temperate regions of the Old World. Among them, most of the plants are ornamental plants, and only a few of them are used for medicine.

Chrysanthemums are short-day plants. It likes light and a warm and humid climate. They grow well in deep soil, rich in humus, fertile and well-drained sandy loam.

They are highly adaptable and can be found throughout China’s cities and villages. Around the 8th century, it was introduced to Japan and became a symbol of the Japanese imperial family. Around the 18th century, it was introduced into Europe. Later, this plant spread all over the world.

Chrysanthemum

According to ancient books, chrysanthemum has been cultivated in China for more than 3000 years. Chinese people have the habit of drinking chrysanthemum wine and chrysanthemum tea.

Chrysanthemum is one of the top ten famous flowers in China. It is also defined by the Chinese as the four gentlemen in the flower, and the other three are plum blossom, orchid, and bamboo. It is given the meaning of auspiciousness and longevity by the Chinese people.

From September to November, people gather the flower heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium remove impurities, dry them or steam them, and dry them in the sun, and make them into Chinese herbal medicines.

Ju Hua contains apigenin, luteolin, robinin, acacetin, chrysoeriol, diosmetin, eupatilin, baicalin, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, rutin, hesperetin, hesperidin, eudesmin, borneol, linalool, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, coumarins, palmitic acid, taraxasterol, β-sitosterol, amino acids, polysaccharides, adenosine, alkaloids, lutein, vitamins, and some trace elements.

Generally, white or yellow Ju Hua with a strong aroma is preferred.

According to <Shennong Ben Cao Jing>, the medicinal property of Ju Hua is slightly cold, with a pungent, sweet, and bitter taste. It has a certain therapeutic effect on the pathological changes of the lung and liver meridians.

In traditional Chinese medicine, it is often used to dispel wind and heat, stabilize liver Yang, clear liver and improve vision, clear heat and remove toxins, and treat chronic pharyngitis, neonatal jaundice, children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, coronary heart disease, angina, cerebral infarction, chronic renal failure, ulcerative colitis, chronic hepatitis, neurosis, hyperlipidemia, refractory urticaria, flat warts, trigeminal neuralgia, hemorrhoids.

There are about 100 kinds of Chinese medicine prescriptions containing it, such as Sang Ju Yin, Huang Lian Shang Qing Pian, and Qi Ju Di Huang Wan.

Benefits

  • Anti-inflammation, inhibiting xylene-induced ear swelling in mice, and formaldehyde-induced foot swelling in mice.
  • Anti-oxidation, scavenging DPPH free radicals, superoxide anion free radicals, and hydroxyl free radicals.
  • Inhibiting herpes simplex virus, poliovirus, and measles virus.
  • Accelerating the immune proliferation of lymphocytes, and promoting immune regulation.
  • Reducing liver damage induced by CCL4 and protecting the liver.
  • Inhibiting the increase of triglyceride content in hyperlipidemia rats, reducing the content of low-density lipoprotein, and increasing the content of high-density lipoprotein.
  • Antagonizing the arrhythmia caused by chloroform.
  • Inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer HepG-2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
  • Dispelling wind and heat, treating fever, headache, and cough in the early stage of warm diseases or wind-heat.
  • Stabilizing liver Yang and treating vertigo and headache caused by hyperactivity of liver-yang or liver fire attacking the upper.
  • Clearing liver heat, treating redness, swelling, and pain of eyes caused by wind-heat in the liver channel or liver fire attacking the upper.
  • Treating dizziness and blurred vision caused by insufficiency of liver and kidney.
  • Removing heat toxins, treating skin ulcers and abscesses caused by heat toxins.
  • Its flavonoids have an inhibitory effect on the replication of human T lymphoid H9 cells that are acutely infected by HIV.
  • Diosmetin can inhibit c-kit signaling, attenuate the proliferation of primary melanocytes induced by stem cell factor (SCF), and inhibit melanin production induced by UVB irradiation.
  • Inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus Albicans, pneumococcus, beta-hemolytic streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Shigella, typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus, proteobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae.
  • Studies have found that its extract can prolong the exhaustive swimming time of mice under normal pressure and hypoxia. It has an anti-fatigue effect.
  • Studies have found that its alcohol extract can increase myocardial contractility and coronary blood flow in the isolated heart, and has a good positive inotropic effect on the failed isolated toad heart caused by pentobarbital.

Combinations

  • It can be used in combination with Sang Ye (Mulberry Leaf), Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae), Bo He (Mentha), and Jie Geng (Radix Platycodi) to treat fever, headache, and cough caused by wind-heat and warm diseases.
  • It can be used in combination with Shi Jue Ming (Concha Haliotidis), Zhen Zhu Mu (Mother of Pearl), and Bai Shao (White Peony Root) to treat vertigo and headache caused by hyperactivity of liver-yang.
  • It can be used in combination with Ling Yang Jiao (Cornu Antelopis), Gou Teng (Ramulus cum Uncis Uncariae), and Sang Ye (Mulberry Leaf) to treat vertigo and headache caused by liver fire attacking the upper.
  • It can be used in combination with Chan Tui (Periostracum Cicadae), Mu Zei (Scouring Rush), and Jiang Can (Bombyx Batryticatus) to treat redness, swelling, and pain of eyes caused by wind-heat in the liver channel.
  • It can be used in combination with Gou Qi Zi (Fructus Lycii), Shu Di Huang (Processed Rehmannia Root), and Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) to treat dizziness and blurred vision caused by insufficiency of liver and kidney.
  • It can be used in combination with Jin Yin Hua (Flos Lonicerae) and Gan Cao (Licorice Root) to treat ulcers and abscesses caused by heat toxins.

Side Effects

Animal studies have shown that taking its decoction in large doses may cause loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, and even death in animals.

Overdose may cause abdominal pain or diarrhea.

A small percentage of people taking it may cause allergic reactions such as rash or itching.

Precautions and Warnings

  • The dosage of Ju Hua should be controlled at 5-9g.
  • It can be made into decoction, tea, medicinal liquor or mashed for external use.
  • People who are allergic to Ju Hua should not take it.
  • People with a fear of cold caused by qi deficiency should not take it.
  • People who eat less and have diarrhea should not take it.
  • Pregnant and breastfeeding women should take it under the guidance of a doctor.